- This Greek temple features the Doric column.Jupiterimages/Photos.com/Getty Images
Greek architecture featured orders of design columns. The first order, which was the simplest, features a column with no base and a round neck at the top with a square block. This column order featured fluted columns with grooves that numbered up to 20 around the column.
- This Ionic column cap has an intricate rolled decoration called a volute.Jupiterimages/Photos.com/Getty Images
The Greek Ionic order featured a fluted column, sometimes as long as 40 feet, with a decorative base of a block and circle. The top of the column was capped by a volute that turned down and a square block on top that supported the marble beams above.
- Greek Corinthian columns are highly detailed.Jupiterimages/Photos.com/Getty Images
The Greek Corinthian column was the highest order. These columns began with a decorative base and was capped with a volute, rosette and decorative leaf. The column was fluted along the length, which was often 40 feet.
- All Greek architecture was designed with symmetry in mind, with triangular gables that topped off the building. Different columns rarely stood side by side. If there was one opening of a certain size and decoration, then there was another on the opposite side, many times with the same column repeating 10 to 12 times along the entrance of a building or temple.
- By building a number of arches along the building, the Romans created a large, open space for the public.Jupiterimages/Photos.com/Getty Images
Roman architecture is dominated by large arches. These arches were developed in order to support great open buildings that were built for the public. In order to prevent crowding in public arenas, these arches were implemented to be structurally safe. The Roman Coliseum was designed with many elaborate arches that extended around the entire structure, a feat that was not seen in Greek architecture. However, the Romans did implement symmetry by using Greek order of columns.
- The Pantheon is a marvelous collection of many arches formed into a dome.Hemera Technologies/AbleStock.com/Getty Images
The Romans would take the arch one step further when they built the Pantheon. This architecture style was created in order to completely eliminate interior columns and arches. The dome was innovative and far different than the Greek triangular roofs and ceilings that relied on columns for support. The Pantheon dome was basically a large arch closed in on all sides. It has withstood earth quakes and invasions over the centuries.