This crater is also referred to as the 8th Natural Wonder of the World.
It is the largest crater on earth.
The crater was formed after a giant volcanic explosion called caldera, three million years ago.
This conservation area became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979.
The conservation area is part of the Serengeti Eco-system and home to about 25,000 large mammals.
It is a unique area where wildlife are protected whilst allowing human habitation.
The Masai community, who are entirely nomads are allowed to graze their cattle as they continue with their traditional lifestyle within the conservation area.
The Ngorongoro crater is 600m deep and the floor of the crater covers an area of 260 square kilometers.
This area has the largest number of mammalian predators in the whole of Africa.
In 2001, it had the highest population of lion numbering 62.
The floor of the crater consists of a mixture of grassland, forests and swamps.
Lake Makat, a soda lake which is filled by the Munge river provides sufficient water for the wild animals and the Masai people.
The ecological environment is also a perfect place for animals to graze, hide and climb trees.
The crater has fertile volcanic soil which sustains enough grass and lush forest all the year-round.
As a result, both the herbivorous and the predators remain in the area throughout.
One side effect of this conservation area is the in-breeding of the lion population.
Over the past years, many genetic problems have been passed from one generation to the other because, the crater male lions are so large that, they are not a match for other male lions from outside.
Most of the crater floor is covered with grassland and grazing wild animals predominate the area.
These animals include the zebra, buffalo, elephant, gazelle, kongoni and the warthog.
This area has the largest number of black rhinos in the whole of Tanzania.
Other predators include the leopard, hyena and the jackal.
The swamp and the forest is habitat to many hippos, water buck, reed buck, bush buck, baboons and the Dik Dik.
The birds found on this area depend greatly on the season.
For instance, you will see resident birds throughout the year such as the ostrich, bustards and plovers.
During the wet season, you will see European migrants such as Yellow Wagtails, White Storks and the swallows.
These birds migrate to the conservation area beginning during the months of March to May.
They coincide with the rains of Africa and the winter in Europe and Asia.
Local migrant birds include; flamingo, duck, stone chat and many other birds.
The conservation area protects the Olduvai Gorge, where the discovery of the earliest man (homo habilis) by Mary and Louis Leakey 1950 and 1960.
The Ngorongoro crater has a high altitude of 2,235 meters above the sea level, creating a malaria-free micro-climate.